The challenge is to define a social compact similar to that established for French Jews in the 19th century: the right to be left in peace in exchange for the ability to join in the building of the nation. This negotiation continues. On one hand, the dynamics of integration have enabled the development of a middle-class Muslim culture that has won this right. They are teachers, journalists, doctors, lawyers, business executives who are part of daily life in France.
But this link is broken for the working class, a consequence not unrelated to the decline of the unions. The riots can be read as a failed step in the negotiation process. What the answer will be is playing out partly in the mosques, which are gradually losing their connections to the home countries as new immigrants and converts arrive. This article was originally published in French. Do editors pander to audiences more than they should?
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But what exactly is this supposed tradition, and what is its historical and political context? DR In the late 19th century, France began to bring in immigrants — mainly from neighbouring countries such as Belgium, Italy and Spain — to compensate for its declining population. The class struggle The next chapter begins after World War I. Three essays on immigrant assimilation Public Deposited.
Essay assimilation america
You do not have access to any existing collections. You may create a new collection. MLA Tong, Yuying. Three Essays On Immigrant Assimilation. APA Tong, Y.
Three essays on immigrant assimilation. Chicago Tong, Yuying. Last Modified March 22, Creator Tong, Yuying Affiliation: College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Sociology Abstract Plenty of researches have studied immigrant assimilation in recent decades, and they can be divided into two main streams: one is adaptation of children of immigrants and the other is adult economic assimilation. This dissertation studies both, but focuses on positive behavior for children and gender disparity of earnings for adults.
For immigrant youth studies, the main contribution is incorporating the positive social behavior of volunteering in assimilation literature. For adult study, it reexamines the earnings assimilation and gender disparity using repeated measures for same individuals for a particular group of scientists and engineers. I chose volunteering as a positive social behavior to distinguish it from the common health and risky behaviors analyzed in previous assimilation studies. In this three-article format dissertation, my first article examined whether exposure as measured by the duration of residence in the U.
Detailed research in Amsterdam showed that all neighborhoods were ethnically mixed, which meant that the Dutch and ethnic minorities lived together. Nationally, only in 5. The authors believed that the geographic dispersal of ethnic minorities at the micro-level was a consequence of the municipal housing policies, which in its turn was due to a housing shortage in the bigger Dutch cities, municipalities have policies to allocate housing to all citizens, both ethnic Dutch and immigrants.
Since there were hardly any one-parent families among the Turks and Moroccans, the SCP research focused on the Surinamese, Antillean, and Dutch families. As regards the Surinamese and Antilleans, half of the families were one-parent families, but in poor neighborhoods, the proportions were higher: two thirds of the Antilleans and three quarters of the Surinamese families were one-parent families.
For about three quarters of the one-parent families, the head of the family was unemployed. If they had a job, they earned less than a two-parent family with one income. Members of Dutch one-parent families had more to spend individually than members of Surinamese and Antillean two-parent families — that might have been caused, in part, by the number of children per family, which was higher among Surinamese and Antillean families.
Compared to the American context, the situation of Surinamese and Antillean one-parent families was much better, even though the latter were in a disadvantageous position in the Dutch society, stated the SCP report.
Almost half of the Surinamese one-parent families were working women. The Dutch parents believed that the educational level of these schools was below standard. Referring once again to American studies, they saw crime as a possible reason why poor neighborhoods turned into ghettos. The researchers mentioned that they could not establish whether the crime rate increased because of the ethnicity of the criminals, or because of the low incomes of criminals i.
Identity and Assimilation | National Affairs
Whereas age and gender were the likely determinants of crime, the researchers could not verify the relationship between crime and the place of residence. But the sense of insecurity and fear of crime were higher in poor neighborhoods than in other neighborhoods, leading to a tendency for all ethnicities to leave the neighborhood as soon as possible.
Given the overrepresentation of ethnic minorities in these neighborhoods, and a relatively high presence of younger members of certain groups in crime, the researchers found this flight from the neighborhoods understandable. One policy would be to counter the concentration of ethnic minorities by moving them to other neighborhoods. A possible policy was busing. Yet no such policies were implemented at the national level. Some cities, mostly smaller ones, did try to prevent high concentrations of ethnic groups, both in education and in housing.
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Such policies were not necessarily aimed at ethnic minorities, but were more general programs concerning crime prevention, the creation of jobs, and the emphasis on the idea of community in poor neighborhoods. Most of these policies were also executed at the level of city governance. The SCP would write the report on the results of the policies. Originally, the focus of the debate was creating successful policies to minimize and preferably erase the disadvantageous position of minorities in Dutch society.
The statistics presented in the traditional fields of education and un employment showed a positive trend among ethnic minorities since The politicians who asked for more information, a request that led to the Monitor, wanted to check if the government policies for minorities were effective. They ended up with a new type of report that showed more categories in which Dutch people and immigrants were different. It is debatable whether these new categories were always relevant.
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The authors of the Monitor implied that a uniform population would form an ideal society; they did not consider whether diversity would offer any advantages, and they ignored the various lifestyles and social ideals among the Dutch. Originally, the questions were mainly aimed at establishing whether ethnic minorities were actually in touch with the ethnic Dutch. For instance, members of ethnic minorities were asked which ethnic groups they met most often at work overall In , the ISEO researchers concluded that 9.
While the focus of the report was on the extent that immigrants tried to be part of Dutch society, the report emphasized the lack of social interaction of immigrant groups with Dutch society. As regards informal participation, the Surinamese and Antilleans socialized more with ethnic Dutch than the other minorities did.
Apparently as the highest form of socialization, the researchers regarded inter-ethnic marriages. What inter-ethnic divorce did to socialization and integration was not mentioned in the report. He had explained in the report that education, labor, income, and housing described the social-economic position of the ethnic minorities, but he suggested that this information was incomplete. Social integration could only be measured if informal participation i. In his reading, this type of integration was identical to the idea of modernization, which he defined as follows:.
The term modernization usually refers to the process in which an agrarian society transforms into an industrial or even post-industrial society. It is a process of increasing social differentiation, driven by science and technology. We are interested in the consequences of modernization at the cultural level, such as increasing rationalization and individualization.
These can be considered as dimensions of rational thinking. On five of these dimensions we have collected information in the SPVA to see to what extent ethnic minorities had made progress to adjust. He saw ethnic minorities as less modern and less rational than the ethnic Dutch. If Martens was serious about the difference between an agrarian and a post-industrial society, it is interesting to note that the SPVA research was executed in the four biggest cities and nine other big cities and towns in the Netherlands.
If his theory were right, it would automatically lead to a substantial difference between Dutch people and ethnic minorities. It would also mean that by only looking at Dutch city people, and excluding the Dutch in smaller towns and in the countryside, the Dutch would seem more modern than they were in general. Moreover, his statistics emphasized the backwardness and lack of integration of ethnic minorities. Those five dimensions were: 1 emancipation of women; 2 individualization; 3 secularization; 4 democratization and respect for authority; and 5 general modern ideas.
The authors noted that all of these groups were diverse in their response to modernity in themselves. With them, too, a part of the population is less modern, even if it is less so than among the other ethnic groups. According to these statistics, among Turks and Moroccans, women are more modern than men, while the opposite is true among the Surinamese, Antilleans, and Dutch.
Apparently Turkish and Moroccan women had more progressive ideas about the emancipation of women, individualization, secularization, and respect for authorities than Turkish and Moroccan men had.
Essay on Assimilation into the United States
All Turkish and Moroccan immigrants scored significantly lower than the Surinamese, Antilleans, and Dutch. The second-generation of all immigrant groups scored higher on the modernization scale than the first-generation, which could be an indication that these immigrant groups were integrating. Second-generation Antilleans were even more modern than the average Dutch person.
Within all groups, younger people were more modern than older people. Table 3. Source: E. Weijers, Integration Monitor , Their judgment that ethnic groups were not modern, and therefore not integrated, led to a negative assessment of these groups, while it was debatable whether the standards of modernization should have been so strict. This was yet another example in which government officials depicted ethnic minorities as different from the ethnic Dutch, with a focus on culture while ignoring social and economic issues.
They found in their opinion poll that a limited number of members of any ethnic group seemed interested in Dutch political issues, or in being a politician. A striking deviation from this pattern was that in the city councils of Amsterdam, Deventer, and Helmond the share of ethnic minority council members was in proportion to the overall share of the ethnic groups in the local population. They had gathered opinion polls in which Dutch citizens expressed their ideas about immigrants.
Another new insight was offered by answers to the question how often Dutch people interacted with immigrants. The same statistical data could be read in another way.