Why begin a survey module about evolution with questions about belief in God? Researchers were concerned that questions about evolution may have become so caught up in contentious debates about religion, culture and politics that simply asking about evolution outright might lead to erroneous results. Religious people who believe both that evolution has occurred and that God played a role in it might nevertheless — when asked cold — choose the creationist option simply as a way of registering their belief that God exists, and not because they truly reject evolution.
Without having first been given the chance to stipulate that they believe God exists and played a role in the creation of life on Earth, some respondents may have seen it as socially undesirable to say they believe humans have evolved over time.
Overall, the survey found that roughly half of U. Analysis of the data showed that respondents answered the evolution question series similarly, regardless of whether they were first asked about their belief in God. Since the experimental test showed that asking about belief in God had no impact on the way respondents answer questions about evolution, all Pew Research Center surveys conducted since have omitted the introductory questions measuring beliefs about God.
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The Center asked a very similar, two-step battery of evolution questions three years later. However, researchers were concerned that responses to the question may have been influenced by the fact that the entire survey was about scientific topics. Specifically, people who are most interested in scientific topics may have been more likely to participate in the survey. It is also possible that a slight change to the wording of the question between and could have affected the results.
Humans and other living things have evolved over time, OR humans and other living things have existed in their present form since the beginning of time. As a result of the different survey context and the slight change in question wording, Pew Research Center did not report the results as the continuation of a trend that began in Between and , Pew Research Center asked the two-step evolution question series four more times. In the U.
Statistical analysis shows that evangelicals and people who belong to historically black Protestant denominations are less likely than those in many other religious groups to believe in evolution even after accounting for different levels of educational attainment. As noted at the outset of this report, our recent experiment found that including an immediate option to link God to evolution makes a substantial difference in the responses given by white evangelicals and black Protestants.
In , Pew Research Center experimented with the wording of the standard question about evolution. Further information: Gene flow. Main article: Natural selection. Further information: Sexual selection.
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Further information: Genetic hitchhiking , Hill—Robertson effect , and Selective sweep. Further information: Genetic drift and Effective population size. Further information: Gene flow , Hybrid biology , and Horizontal gene transfer. Play media. Further information: Adaptation.
Further information: Coevolution. Further information: Co-operation evolution. Main article: Speciation. Further information: Assortative mating and Panmixia. Further information: Extinction. Life timeline. This box: view talk edit. Single-celled life. Multicellular life. Earliest water.
Earliest life. Earliest oxygen. Atmospheric oxygen. Oxygen crisis. Sexual reproduction. Earliest plants. Ediacara biota. Cambrian explosion. Earliest apes. See also: Human timeline , and Nature timeline. Main article: Evolutionary history of life. See also: Timeline of evolutionary history of life. Further information: Common descent and Evidence of common descent. Main articles: Evolutionary history of life and Timeline of evolutionary history of life.
Main articles: Applications of evolution , Selective breeding , and Evolutionary computation. Further information: Social effects of evolutionary theory , Oxford evolution debate , Creation—evolution controversy , Objections to evolution , and Evolution in fiction. Argument from poor design Biocultural evolution Biological classification Evidence of common descent Evolution in Variable Environment Evolutionary anthropology Evolutionary ecology Evolutionary epistemology Evolutionary neuroscience Evolution of biological complexity Evolution of plants Project Steve Timeline of the evolutionary history of life Universal Darwinism.
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Li; Q. Wang September Journal of Applied Genetics. American Journal of Medical Genetics. April 25, Bibcode : Natur. It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairing we have postulated immediately suggests a possible copying mechanism for the genetic material. The American Biology Teacher. Bibcode : NW May 11, Nature Reviews Genetics. Trends in Genetics. April Molecular Medicine Today.